Friday, September 27, 2013

Vocabulary Notes 5



Abdomen and Gastrointestinal System Vocabulary
abdomen
absorb
anus
appendix
backwash
belch
belly button
bile
bloating
bout
 bowel
bowel movement
burp
colon
colostomy
constipation
contractions
cramping
diaphragm
diarrhea
digestion
diverticula
diverticulitis
diverticulosis
dysphagia
epigastric
erode
esophageal
esophagus
expel
feces
flare
flatulence
gallbladder
gas
gastritis
gastroenteritis
heartburn
hemorrhoid
hiatal hernia
indigestion
intestinal tract
lower esophageal sphincter
moderate
navel obstruction
occult blood
pancreas
peptic ulcer
pouches
rectum
reflux
regurgitation
Schatzki’s ring
stomach acid
stool
strain
swallow
tenderness

Idiomatic expressions using “stomach”

  1. hard to stomach means that the person dislikes something or someone else very much
  2. to have butterflies in one’s stomach means to have anxiety and feelings of fear.
  3. to be difficult to stomach means to be unable to accept someone or endure something that is unpleasant or wrong.
  4. turn one’s stomach means to disgust someone or to make one feel sick.
  5. eyes are bigger than one’s stomach means to eat more food than one can eat.
  6. not have the stomach for means the person has no desire for something he or she feels is wrong or unpleasant.
  7. can’t stomach means to dislike someone or something very much.

Musculoskeletal System Vocabulary
aching
ankylosing spondylitis
arthritis
autoimmune
bony lumps
brittle
bursitis
carpal tunnel syndrome
cartilage
collagen
connective tissue
debilitating
deformity
degenerative
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
fibromyalgia
flexibility
fracture
fusion
gout
immune
joints
knuckles
ligaments
lupus
mobility
nodes
osteoarthritis
osteoporosis
photosensitivity
range of motion
relapse
remission
rheumatism
scleroderma
Sj√∂gren’s syndrome
spine
stiffness
stooped posture
stress
stretch
subside
susceptible
synovitis
temporomandibular joint
tendonitis
urate crystals
vertebrae
wear and tear

Idiomatic Expressions using “Joint,” “Muscle” and “Spine”

  1.  to put one’s nose out of joint means to be upset about something.
  2. muscle one’s way in means to use one’s strength to get where you want to go.
  3. to send chills/shivers up/down one’s spine means to cause someone to feel frightened or excited.

Idiomatic Expressions using “Stiff”

  1. to be bored stiff means to be extremely bored.
  2. to be scared stiff means to be extremely scarred.
  3. a stiff means a dead body.
  4. to be stiff-necked means to be stubborn and to refuse to change or obey.
  5. to be stiffed means someone is not paid the money they are expected to receive.

 Idiomatic Expressions using “Bone”

  1. a bone of contention refers to something that people disagree about.
  2. to feel something in one’s bones means to be sure about something even though you have no proof.
  3. to make no bones about something means to not feel ashamed or nervous about saying or doing something.
  4. work one’s fingers to the bone means to work very hard.
  5. to have a bone to pick means to you want to talk to the person who is annoying you.

 Idiomatic Expressions using “Back”

  1. behind one’s back means to say or do something secretly.
  2. to get off one’s back means to tell someone to stop criticizing, nagging, or telling them what to do.
  3. to break one’s back means to work very hard on something.
  4. to give someone a pat on the back means to congratulate and praise someone.
  5. to stab someone in the back means to betray and do something bad to a person who trusts you.

Neurologic System and Mental Health Vocabulary
Alzheimer’s disease
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
aspirate
atonic
atrophy
balance
bipolar disorder
dementia
depression
dexterity disorientation
distracted
electric shock
epilepsy
episode
exacerbation
forgetfulness
gait
irreversible
isolation
jerking movements
lapse
light therapy
mental impairment
multiple sclerosis
mumbling
speech
myelin sheath
myoclonic
neurology
obsessive-compulsive disorder
onset
panic attack
phobias
pill rolling
progressive
rigid
rouse
seizure
shuffling walk
slurred speech
spinal tap
staring spells
suicide
tremor
twitch
unsteady
voluntary muscles
wandering

Idiomatic Expressions using “Head”

  1. to bite someone’s head off is to be very angry at someone.
  2. to hang one’s head means to be embarrassed and ashamed.
  3. to keep your head above water means to have a difficult time surviving because of money and other problems.
  4. to lose one’s head means to be unable to stay calm.
  5. to keep one’s head means to remain calm.

 Idiomatic Expressions using “Mind”
  1. give someone a piece of one’s mind means to tell someone how angry you are.
  2. one’s mind goes blank means the person cannot remember something.
  3. boggles the mind means that something is confusing and difficult to accept or imagine.
  4. peace of mind means a feeling of calm and no worries.
  5. mind-numbing means to be extremely boring.
  6. Idiomatic Expressions using “Brain”
  7. to pick someone’s brain means to ask someone who knows a lot about something for advice and information.
  8. to rack/beat one’s brains means to think very hard and long about something.

Answer Key: Pre-Assessment Exam 5


Thursday, September 26, 2013

Notes on Active and Passive Tenses



ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TENSES CHART
SIMPLE PRESENT and SIMPLE PAST 
The active object becomes the passive subject.
 
am/is/are +  past participle
 
was/were + past participle
Active: Simple Present 
The movie
 fascinates me. 
The movie
 bores Jack. 
The movie
 surprises them.
Passive: Simple Present 
I
 am fascinated by the movie. 
Jack
 is bored by the movie. 
They
 are surprised by the movie.
Active: Simple Past 
The movie
 bored me. 
The movie
 fascinated Jack. 
The movie
 surprised them.
Passive: Simple Past 
I
 was bored by the movie. 
Jack
 was fascinated by the movie. 
They
 were surprisedby the movie.

PRESENT and PAST CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) 
Passive form: 
 
am/is/are + being + past participle
 
was/were + being + past participle
Active: Present Continuous 
I
 am helping Shannon. 
June
 is helping Su and Ling.
 Passive: Present Continuous 
Shannon
 is being helped by me. 
Su and Ling
 are being helped by June.
Active: Past Continuous 
I
 was cleaning the bathroom. 
They
 were cleaning the bedroom. 
Susan
 was cleaning the kitchen and patio.
Passive: Past Continuous 
The bathroom
 was being cleaned by me. 
The bedroom 
 was being cleaned by them. 
The kitchen and patio
 were being cleaned by Susan.


PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT and FUTURE PERFECT 
Passive form: 
 
have/has been + past participle
 
had been + past participle
Active: Present Perfect 
I
 have mailed the gift. 
Jack
 has mailed the gifts.
Passive: Present Perfect 
The gift
 has been mailed by me. 
The gifts
 have been mailed by Jack.
Active: Past Perfect 
Steven Spielberg
 had directed the movie. 
Penny Marshall
 had directed those movies.
Passive: Past Perfect 
The movie
 had been directed by Steven Spielberg. 
The movies
 had been directed by Penny Marshall.
Active: Future Perfect 
John
 will have finished the project next month. 
They
 will have finished the projects before then.
Passive: Future Perfect 
The project
 will have been finished by next month. 
The projects
 will have been finished before then.

FUTURE TENSES 
Passive forms: will + be + past participle
 
is/are going to be + past participle
Active: Future with WILL 
I
 will mail the gift. 
Jack
 will mail the gifts.
Passive: Future with WILL 
The gift
 will be mailed by me. 
The gifts
 will be mailed by Jack.
Active: Future with GOING TO 
I
 am going to make the cake. 
Sue
 is going to make two cakes.
Passive: Future with GOING TO 
The cake
 is going to be made by me. 
Two cakes
 are going to be made by Sue.


PRESENT / FUTURE MODALS 
The passive form follows this pattern:
 
modal + be + past participle
Active: WILL / WON'T (WILL NOT) 
Sharon
 will invite Tom to the party. 
Sharon
 won't invite Jeff to the party. 
(Sharon
 will not invite Jeff to the party.)
Passive: WILL / WON'T (WILL NOT) 
Tom
 will be invited to the party by Sharon. 
Jeff
 won't be invited to the party by Sharon. 
(Jeff
 will not be invited to the party by Sharon.)
Active: CAN / CAN'T (CAN NOT) 
Mai
 can foretell the future. 
Terry
 can't foretell the future. 
(Terry
 can not foretell the future.)
Passive: CAN / CAN'T (CAN NOT) 
The future
 can be foretold by Mai. 
The future
 can't be foretold by Terry. 
(The future
 can not be foretold by Terry.)
Active: MAY / MAY NOT 
Her company
 may give Katya a new office. 
The lazy students
 may not do the homework. 
MIGHT / MIGHT NOT
 
Her company
 might give Katya a new office. 
The lazy students
 might not do the homework.
Passive: MAY / MAY NOT 
Katya
 may be given a new office by her company. 
The homework
 may not be done by the lazy students. 
MIGHT / MIGHT NOT
 
Katya
 might be given a new office by her company. 
The homework
 might not be done by the lazy students.
Active: SHOULD / SHOULDN'T 
Students
 should memorize English verbs. 
Children
 shouldn't smoke cigarettes.
Passive: SHOULD / SHOULDN'T 
English verbs
 should be memorized  by students. 
Cigarettes
 shouldn't be smoked  by children.
Active: OUGHT TO 
Students
 ought to learn English verbs. 
(negative
 ought to is rarely used)
Passive: OUGHT TO 
English verbs
 ought to be memorized by students.
Active: HAD BETTER / HAD BETTER NOT 
Students
 had better practice English every day. 
Children
 had better not drink whiskey.
Passive: HAD BETTER / HAD BETTER NOT 
English
 had better be practiced every day by students. 
Whiskey
 had better not be drunk by children.
Active: MUST / MUST NOT 
Tourists
 must apply for a passport to travel abroad. 
Customers
 must not use that door.
Passive: MUST / MUST NOT 
A passport to travel abroad
 must be applied for. 
That door
 must not be used by customers.
Active: HAS TO / HAVE TO 
She
 has to practice English every day. 
Sara and Miho
 have to wash the dishes every day. 
DOESN'T HAVE TO/ DON'T HAVE TO
 
Maria
 doesn't have to clean her bedroom every day. 
The children
 don't have to clean their bedrooms every day.
Passive: HAS TO / HAVE TO 
English
 has to be practiced every day. 
The dishes
 have to be washed by them every day. 
DOESN'T HAVE TO/ DON'T HAVE TO
 
Her bedroom
 doesn't have to be cleaned every day. 
Their bedrooms
 don't have to be cleaned every day.
Active: BE SUPPOSED TO 
I
 am supposed to type the composition. 
I
 am not supposed to copy the stories in the book. 
Janet
 is supposed to clean the living room. 
She
 isn't supposed to eat candy and gum. 
They
 are supposed to make dinner for the family. 
They
 aren't supposed to make dessert.
Passive: BE SUPPOSED TO 
The composition
 is supposed to be typed by me. 
The stories in the book
 are not supposed to be copied. 
The living room
 is supposed to be cleaned by Janet. 
Candy and gum
 aren't supposed to be eaten by her. 
Dinner for the family
 is supposed to be made by them. 
Dessert
 isn't supposed to be made by them.


PAST MODALS 
The past passive form follows this pattern:
 
modal + have been + past participle
Active: SHOULD HAVE / SHOULDN'T HAVE 
The students
 should have learned the verbs. 
The children
 shouldn't have broken the window.
Passive: SHOULD HAVE / SHOULDN'T HAVE 
The verbs
 should have been learned by the students. 
The window
 shouldn't have been broken by the children.

Active: OUGHT TO 
Students
 ought to have learned the verbs. 
(negative
 ought to is rarely used)
Passive: OUGHT TO 
The verbs
 ought to have been learned by the students.

Active: BE SUPPOSED TO (past time) 
I
 was supposed to type the composition. 
I
 wasn't supposed to copy the story in the book. 
Janet
 was supposed to clean the living room. 
She
 wasn't supposed to eat candy and gum. 
Frank and Jane
 were supposed to make dinner. 
They
 weren't supposed to make dessert.
Passive: BE SUPPOSED TO (past time) 
The composition
 was supposed to be typed  by me. 
The story in the book
 wasn't supposed to be copied. 
The living room
 was supposed to be cleaned by Janet. 
Candy and gum
 weren't supposed to be eaten by her. 
Dinner
 was supposed to be made by them. 
Dessert
 wasn't supposed to be made by them.

Active: MAY / MAY NOT 
That firm
 may have offered Katya a new job. 
The students
 may not have written the paper. 
MIGHT / MIGHT NOT
 
That firm
 might have offered Katya a new job. 
The students
 might not have written the paper.
Passive: MAY / MAY NOT 
Katya
 may have been offered a new job by that firm. 
The paper
 may not have been written by the students. 
MIGHT / MIGHT NOT
 
Katya
 might have been offered a new job by that firm. 
The paper
 might not have been written by the students.